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Lyme Disease – Symptoms, Causes and More

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Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a contagion thin by the bite of a tick diseased by bacteria of the genus Borrelia (mainly by the class Borrelia burgdorferi) after biting other ill animals such as cows, sheep, or dogs.

It was discovered in 1976 and given this name due to many cases in the American city of Lyme.

The bite is usually painless; in 60% of cases, a characteristic stain may appear several days after the bite. It is usually a slowly growing red spot (about 5 cm), which fades in the centre (like a doughnut) and surrounds by several red rings (like a bulls-eye).

The infection treats with antibiotics, but some symptoms, such as joint pain, may persist later, up to 6 months after being cured (post-Lyme syndrome).

Signs and Symptoms Early (3 to 30 days after tick bite)

  • It looks in about 70 to 80% of infected persons.
  • It starts at the tick bite place after 3 to 30 days (the average is about seven days).
  • It grows gradually over several days and can be 12 inches (30 cm) or more across.
  • The problem may feel hot to the touch but rarely stings or hurts.
  • It sometimes lightens as it enlarges, producing the appearance of a bull’s eye.
  • It can occur anywhere in the body.

Signs and symptoms later (days to months after the tick bite)

  • It has severe headaches and a stiff neck.
  • It is palpitations or unequal heartbeat ( Lyme carditis ).
  • Incidents of dizziness or smallness of breath.



Lyme disease is produced by bacteria named Borrelia burgdorferi ( B burgdorferi ). Black-legged ticks (also called deer ticks) can convey these bacteria. Not all species of impulses have bacteria. Immature impulses are called nymphs and are about the size of a pinhead. The nymphs acquire the microbes when feeding small rodents, such as mice diseased with Burgdorfer. You can only get the illness if an ill tick bites you.

The same illness happens in many parts of Europe and Asia. In the United States, most Lyme disease infections occur in the following areas:

  • Northeastern states, from Virginia to Maine
  • Northcentral states, primarily Wisconsin and Minnesota
  • West Coast, mainly in the Northwest

There are three stages of Lyme disease.

  • Stage 1, calls early localised Lyme disease. The bacteria has not yet spread through the body.
  • Stage 2 calls for early disseminated Lyme disease. The bacteria have begun to spread throughout the body.
  • Stage 3 is called late, given Lyme disease. The bacteria have spread throughout the body.

How to prevent Lyme disease

The most real technique to avoid Lyme disease is to income the following defenses that will help you stop and notice a tick bite:

1. Be cautious when walking through wooded or grassy areas

Break on the trails and wear clothing that shelters your skin: long sleeves and pants, socks, and closed-toe shoes. If likely, tuck the pants into the stocking. Wear light-colored clothing that assists in sighted ticks if they have stable attire. Evade sitting on the ground, mainly if there is vegetation.

2. Use repellents counter to insects that cover DEET (N, N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide) at 20-30%

Apply them on clean and dry skin and follow the instructions on the package.

3. When you reappearance from the field, check your body carefully

Inspect your skin for ticks, particularly in your armpits, groin, hair, and knees. You can take benefit of the moment of the shower when the skin is exposed. Therefore, do the same with your children and check your pets methodically.

4. Check and wash the clothes you have worn in the field at sixty degrees

In this way, you will eliminate the ticks that have been able to remain hidden in them. You can too dry it in the dryer at the same temperature.

5. If you find any ticks, remove them immediately

Removing it with blunt forceps and gently pulling it perpendicular to the skin is essential. So if you do not have this type of tweezers, you can gently stretch them without crushing them. The reason is to prevent the tick from regurgitating when removing it. Disinfect the bite area and stay calm. Contact your health centre, and if you can, keep the tick in a container so they can see what species it is. Do not use gasoline, petroleum, oil or heat to remove it.

6. Always keep your pets healthy, checked and following the veterinarian’s recommendations for antiparasitic

Today some pills and collars prevent pets (especially those accompanying us to the field) from contracting ticks. So consult with your veterinarian to inform you properly.

What does your treatment consist of?

Treatment of the infection is constructed on administering antibiotics for several weeks to relieve symptoms and, if administered early, help prevent complications. Likewise, antibiotics can assistance treat arthritis and most nervous and cardiac disorders caused by Lyme disease and prevent its development into stages.

In turn, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen can help discharge the pain of inflamed joints.

After the treatment, fatigue and muscle and joint pain may remain, so while the symptoms vanish, it is vital to rest and evade physical exercise.


The infection usually occurs outdoors in wooded areas, tall grasslands or where there are cattle and mainly in spring and summer. For this reason, although it is not a very common disease, it is more common in people who work in areas with a lot of vegetation, such as forest guards and gardeners, hikers and in children, because they spend much time outdoors, and in people who live with pets.

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