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Multiple Sclerosis – Causes, Symptoms and More

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Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease moving the Central Nervous System, which finishes the brain and spinal cord.

The immune system typically defends the body, but in MS, it attacks the myelin in nerve cells (neurons) by mistake. Nerves run throughout the body, so that numerous sclerosis can manifest in many body parts in different ways.

Not all symptoms appear in all people, nor do they do so with the same intensity. It presents itself differently in each person (heterogeneous ) and is often called “the disease with a thousand faces”.

Most cases diagnose people between 20 and 40 years of age (precisely when designing their life plans), but it can also appear in children, adolescents and the elderly.

Causes of Multiple Sclerosis

The source of Multiple Sclerosis is nameless, but it is putative that it is produced in people with a particular genetic predisposition and bears to various environmental risk issues.

There is nothing a person can do to cause MS or its symptoms, and there is nothing they can do to prevent it, but there are some “modifiable” things to reflect on when self-managing your health to achieve the best quality of life.

To understand what occurs in Multiple Sclerosis, it is essential to know how the central nervous system works:

  • A substance called myelin protects nerve fibers in the central nervous system and helps messages travel fast between the brain and the body’s break (it works like an insulator, like the plastic coating on an electrical wire).
  • The immune system usually helps fight infections, but in the case of Multiple Sclerosis, it mistakes the myelin for a foreign body and attacks it. This compensates the myelin and removes it from nerve fibers, wholly or partially, sending off scars (Sclerosis), known as lesions or plaques. This process is called demyelination. This way, the messages traveling along the nerve fibre interrupted: they can be slowed down, distorted, or even not transmitted.
  • In addition to damaging myelin, it can sometimes damage the nerve fibre fibres). This nerve damage produces an increased disability that can occur over time.

It has not yet been recognized what causes Multiple Sclerosis or its cure. Although it has a hereditary constituent, it is not considered a hereditary disease that interacts with environmental factors.


Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

The disease can debut and present different symptoms, depending on the location of the plaques. The course may be in outbreaks, with partial or complete remission (relapsing-remitting form) or progressive (primarily progressive condition). Some people remain practically asymptomatic after long years of evolution, and others with frequent outbreaks marked progressive deterioration or even a fulminant course.

Neurological manifestations such as fatigue, intellectual impairment (even in early stages or benign forms), alterations in motor control, and brief transient episodes of repeated symptoms occur. Detailed studies have found visual field abnormalities in more than half of patients without a history of optic neuritis.

Among the abnormal movements described are all the variants: rest tremor, hemifacial spasm, and movement tremor. Multiple Sclerosis’s most common transient disorders are dystonia, epileptic seizures, and difficulty speaking and walking. Other less frequent disorders are vasomotor alterations, neuralgia, and sleep disorders.

The most common symptoms are:

  • Fatigue.
  • Intellectual decline.
  • Shaking.
  • Hemifacial spasm.
  • Dystonias.

What factors can affect Multiple Sclerosis?

Nobody knows the cause of Multiple Sclerosis, but everything seems to indicate that its appearance is due to a combination of genes and environmental and lifestyle factors.

The person with MS should be aware of the ‘modifiable’ aspects that may influence their MS to manage MS appropriately, prevent worsening, and achieve the best possible quality of life.

Different investigations indicate the following factors that can influence Multiple Sclerosis:

1. Genetic factors

Multiple Sclerosis is not inherited directly from parents to children, as there are more than 100 genes that can affect the possibility of having MS.

The probability of having MS increases slightly when one of the parents (2%) or a sibling has the disease (3-4%). This probability is greater in twin brothers (30-40%). Although there may be more than one case in the family, this is likely not to happen.

There may be a genetic tendency for Multiple Sclerosis to manifest. But it must coexist with other factors; for this reason, it is not considered a hereditary disease.

2. Environmental factors

According to recent epidemiological studies, in addition to genetic susceptibility, some environmental factors may significantly influence the appearance of MS and its evolution/prognosis. Infectious factors (certain viruses), vitamin D, intestinal microbiota, and lifestyle (physical activity, diet, etc.).

  • Latitude
  • Vitamin D
  • Lifestyle
  • infections
  • Microbiota


Currently, there is no known conclusive cure for Multiple Sclerosis. However, numerous treatments can postpone the disease. Treatment aims to stop the development of symptoms and uphold the patient’s excellence in life.

Also Read: Mitochondrial Diseases – Symptoms, Causes and More

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