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CMT Disease – Symptoms, Diagnosis and More

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CMT (Charcot Marie Tooth disease) is a set of inherited disorders that cause nerve damage. This damage is mainly in the guns and legs (peripheral nerves). Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is also called genetic motor and sensory neuropathy.

CMT disease affects the peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves carry movement and sensation signs between the brain, back cord, and body rest. Symptoms usually begin during adolescence, and foot problems, such as high arcs or hammertoes, may occur first. As CMT progresses, the lower legs can become weak. Later on, the hands may also become weak.

Doctors diagnose this disease using a neurological exam, heritable tests, or nerve biopsies. So there is no cure. The illness can be so mild that you don’t realise you have it, or it can be simple enough to weaken you. The operation can help with physical therapy, occupied therapy, braces, and other devices, and the operation can help in some gears.

Symptoms of CMT Disease

Some types of MTC cause damage to the sheath (myelin sheath) surrounding nerve fibres. Other kinds of CMT directly damage nerve fibres. In both cases, damaged nerve fibres result in neuropathy. The stresses of the legs and arms, which are the longest, are affected first. Nerve fibers that create movement (motor fibers) and nerve fibers that transmit sensation (sensory fibers) are also affected. Therefore, CMT causes weakness and numbness that usually begins in the feet.

  • In most communal types of CMT, symptoms usually start before age 20. They may include:
  • Foot deformity (bow feet);
  • Foot drop (inability to keep the foot horizontal);
  • “Bumped” gait (feet hitting the ground when walking due to foot drop);
  • Loss of muscle in the legs, leading to skinny calves;
  • numbness in feet;
  • Balance problems.

Later, similar symptoms can also appear on the arms and hands. Therefore, CMT rarely affects brain function.


Diagnosis of CMT Disease

A careful neurological evaluation by an expert in neuropathy, including complete family history, physical examination, and nerve conduction tests, with appropriate genetic testing, is the way to establish the diagnosis of CMT. A physical exam may show the following:

  • Difficulty lifting the foot when hiking;
  • Problem by dorsiflexion of the toes and ankles (movement up, away from the ground) and other activities of the feet;
  • Reduced or absent deep tendon reflexes (such as the patellar reflex);
  • Loss of muscle switch and atrophy (shrinking of muscles) in the feet and legs (and later the hands).

Genetic testing can provide the exact cause for most people with CMT.

Cause of Charcot Marie Tooth Disease (CMT)

Sensory nerves allow us to feel pain, pressure, tactile feelings, temperature, body posture, and other feelings. The motor nerves tell the muscles when to move and how fast. To send strong, fast signals over long distances, nerves must be wrapped in an insulating physical called “myelin.” If the wadding doesn’t work well, the nerve can’t work well either.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is produced by a mutation or change (change) in a person’s gene (DNA). A variation in one of the genes related to Charcot-Marie-Tooth sickness can lead to a problem with a protein that the body needs for nerves to work correctly.

Mutations connected to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease cause physical and motor stresses to lose signal skills. Some mutations in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease affect nerve cells, and others affect the cells that wrap the nerve with myelin. Without motor signals, the muscles shrink and weaken. Children have trouble keeping their balance, walking, and manipulating small objects like buttons without sensory cues.

Treatments for CMT Disease

There are no known treatments that stop or slow the progression of CMT, but the ADSC is a money study that seeks to find these treatments. Physical therapy, job-related therapy, and physical activity can help maintain muscle strength and recover independent operation. Orthopedic apparatuses (such as braces, inserts, or orthopedic shoes) can make mobility easier. Orthopaedic surgery on the feet often maintains or even restores walking function.


The indications of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease are typically not severe, and many actions can help. People with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease have an average life expectancy, and most retain the skill to walk for life.

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